Man is made or unmade by himself; in the armoury of thought he forges the weapons by which he destroys himself; he also fashions the tools with which he builds for himself heavenly mansions of joy and strength and peace.
Ivo schreef:Wat bedoelen ze in godsnaam met "maar nooit langer dan twee maanden aaneengesloten"?
Als ze elke dag gedurende 2 maanden bedoelen, no shit dat het je geheugen aantast...
The ecstasy group had not been using on average for more than two months before the start of the study, but had taken an average of 281 ecstasy tablets over the preceding six and a half years.
Einstein schreef:Nu is het ineens weer wel schadelijk?
Elfquest schreef:Ok, dus een stel mafketels die in een periode van 6,5 jaar 281 pillen per persoon gebruikten. Dat is gemiddeld 3,6 pillen per maand... 6,5 jaar lang...
Het zou me verbazen als je daar niets van terugziet in de hersenen.
En dat je dan onderhand wel last heb van stemmingswisselingen snap ik ja.
Lifetime exposure (total no of tablets): 281 ± 250.97
Usual dose (no of tablets/occasion): 3.65 ± 3.08
In conclusion, chronic users of ecstasy may be prone to incurring hippocampal damage. Since the hippocampus plays an essential role in long-term memory, the present findings are of particular interest in view of the various studies showing that ecstasy users display significant memory impairments, whereas their performance on other cognitive tests is generally normal.10
Sjamanjoeri schreef:Als je gewoon niet zo ongelofelijk vaak slikt ben ik er van overtuigd dat dit onderzoek niet van toepassing is op de gemiddelde Feestjeugd die afentoe welles een pilletje neemt.
The fact that we observed reductions in overall grey-matter volume, albeit less extensive than in the hippocampus, suggests that the effects of ecstasy on grey-matter volume may not be specific for the hippocampus. The current observations are probably applicable to other 5-HT-rich brain regions as well. Indeed, a previous study reported multiple regions of grey- matter reduction in ecstasy users,8 including the occipital cortex, temporal cortex and frontal cortex. However, the grey matter in the hippocampus was not affected in that study in which regional grey- and white-matter volumes were analysed using VBM.
The current findings of hippo- campal damage may better explain the memory deficits observed in ecstasy users than previous PET and SPECT studies on SERT densities, and call for further investigations in prospective studies.
Dopamientje schreef:Zegt de studie ook of de schade permanent is?
Imaging and post-mortem ("after death") studies have shown reductions in the volume of the hippocampus in people with depression. The hippocampus of a person who has suffered long-term clinical depression can be as much as 20% smaller than the hippocampus of someone who has never been depressed. Long-term antidepressant treatment (at least a few weeks) can increase hippocampal neurogenesis, and make up for previous volume loss. This effect does not occur if the drug is given for only a few days.
A synthetic chemical similar to the active ingredient in marijuana makes new cells grow in rat brains. What is more, in rats this cell growth appears to be linked with reducing anxiety and depression. The results suggest that marijuana, or its derivatives, could actually be good for the brain.
In mammals, new nerve cells are constantly being produced in a part of the brain called the hippocampus, which is associated with learning, memory, anxiety and depression. Other recreational drugs, such as alcohol, nicotine and cocaine, have been shown to suppress this new growth. Xia Zhang of the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, Canada, and colleagues decided to see what effects a synthetic cannabinoid called HU210 had on rats' brains.
They found that giving rats high doses of HU210 twice a day for 10 days increased the rate of nerve cell formation, or neurogenesis, in the hippocampus by about 40%.
A previous study showed that the antidepressant fluoxetine (Prozac) also increases new cell growth, and the results indicated that it was this cell growth that caused Prozac's anti-anxiety effect. Zhang wondered whether this was also the case for the cannabinoid, and so he tested the rats for behavioural changes.
When the rats who had received the cannabinoid were placed under stress, they showed fewer signs of anxiety and depression than rats who had not had the treatment. When neurogenesis was halted in these rats using X-rays, this effect disappeared, indicating that the new cell growth might be responsible for the behavioural changes.
In another study, Barry Jacobs, a neuroscientist at Princeton University, gave mice the natural cannabinoid found in marijuana, THC (D9-tetrahydrocannabinol)). But he says he detected no neurogenesis, no matter what dose he gave or the length of time he gave it for. He will present his results at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in Washington DC in November.
Jacobs says it could be that HU210 and THC do not have the same effect on cell growth. It could also be the case that cannabinoids behave differently in different rodent species - which leaves open the question of how they behave in humans.
Zhang says more research is needed before it is clear whether cannabinoids could some day be used to treat depression in humans.
Flameon schreef:Einstein schreef:Nu is het ineens weer wel schadelijk?
haha ik dacht hetzelfde .... bij een ander onderzoek is het niet schadelijk
FRESH schreef:Dan weer wél, dan wéér niet, dan weer wel, dan weer niet....zucht
the present findings are of particular interest in view of the various studies showing that ecstasy users display significant memory impairments, whereas their performance on other cognitive tests is generally normal.
Professor of neuropsychopharmacology at Imperial College London, David Nutt, said: "This is an interesting pilot study that is underpowered to provide definitive evidence of an effect of ecstasy, especially as there was more use of other stimulants in the ecstasy group.
"However there is evidence that many drugs especially alcohol can affect the hippocampus and thus memory function. Though the effects of ecstasy on memory are slight, longer follow up studies will be necessary to determine if there might be enduring effects."
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