Look I'm posting here as an pharmacologist and bioinformatics researcher to WARN you guys that you are putting yourselves at risk by consuming halogenated amphetamines, which are increasingly sold as Research Chemicals (RCs). The main substances in question I refer to are known as 2-FA, 3-FA, and 4-FA -- in particular, I am warning about 4-FA.
Some of you know there is a risk of neurotoxicity with compounds such as 4-FA, and choose do consume these substances anyway with informed consent. That's fine. As long as you know there is a risk of brain damage (with the risk level unknown), and you accept that risk , then go ahead.
I am writing to those young people, without the wisdom of age or a background in pharmacology or chemistry, are are just starting in research chemicals (RCs) who do not understand or are unaware that the risk profile of halogenated amphetamines (2-FA, 3-FA, 4-FA, etc) is MUCH DIFFERENT than older research chemicals with a relatively safe track record (2C-I , etc).
MDMA and 2C-I etc are relatively safe when used in moderation, and CANNOT be compared to compounds such as 4-FA. Yes, MDMA has a risk of neurotoxicity, but when used in moderation (a few times a year) that risk is relatively low. 4-FA has a MUCH MUCH higher risk.
Here is why you are at risk if you consume halogenated amphetamines.1) Amphetamine is ALREADY neurotoxic due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain . The neurotoxicity is dose-dependent and duration dependent. If you are on a low-dose Adderall prescription for a couple of years, this is certainly safer than someone who is consuming 1g of methamphetamine a day for a couple of years, but in both cases there is a risk.
 Prostaglandin H synthase-catalyzed bioactivation of amphetamines to free radical intermediates that cause CNS regional DNA oxidation and nerve terminal degeneration
Racemic Amphetamine (low-to-moderate neurotoxicity)
Racemic Methamphetamine (moderate-to-high neurotoxicity)
So listen: Read the link above . Just by consuming amphetamines (especially methamphetamine), you are putting your brain at risk due to the formation of ROS via Prostaglandin H. The impact of amphetamine neurotoxicity be reduced by pre-treating yourself with approximately 500mg of aspirin for every 5mg-10mg of amphetamine, up to a maximum of approx. 4g of aspirin per day. Read the study I linked for more info.
The risk with regular amphetamine is there, it exists in rats, but there are additional significant risks with compounds like 2-FA, 3-FA , and 4-FA...
On to the really toxic stuff, the HALOGENATED AMPHETAMINES. ...
2) Halogenated amphetamines (the Research Chemicals) such as 2-FA, 3-FA, and 4-FA inherit risk profile of dextroamphetamine and methamphetamine above(with low to high neurotoxicity risk) well as inherit toxicity profile of a really dangerous and neurotoxic related compound known as para-chloroamphetamine.
Para-chloroamphetamine is used to selectively KILL (yes, kill) serotonin neurons in the brain in labs around the world. It is MUCH more toxic than MDMA or Amphetamine. Let's take a look at what this awful amphetamine analog looks like (4-CA).
Para-chloroamphetamine (4-CA): Highly toxic to serotonin neurons.
Hmmm... that 4-CA alot like a substance sold by unscrupulous research chemical vendors, out to make a buck on your suffering -- even if they cause you brain damage. Compare the above structure of Para-chloroamphetamine (4-CA) to your beloved 4-FA.
4-FA: Almost the exact same thing as the highly serotonin-toxic para-chloroamphetamine pictured above. Oh shi0.
Oh, you don't believe me that para-chloroamphetamine is toxic?
Let me quote:
Quote: Originally Posted by Wikipedia
[Para-chloroamphetamine, aka. 4-CA] is used as a neurotoxin by neurobiologists to selectively kill serotonergic neurons for research purposes, in the same way that 6-hydroxydopamine is used to kill dopaminergic neurons.
The ONLY different between the research chemical 4-FA and the highly- neurotoxic Para-chloroamphetamine (4-CA) is the substitution of a single atom -- a fluorine atom for a chlorine atom.
The Research Chemical 4-FA has a fluorine in a para position on the phenyl group which is VERY CLOSELY RELATED to the highly neurotoxic 4-CA (para-chloroamphetamine), which has a chlorine in a para position on the phenyl group.
These compounds are SO SUBSTANTIALLY SIMILAR that they are considered 'obvious' functional analogs according to U.S. patent law. If you were to patent para-chloroamphetamine for its neurotoxic properties, it is highly likely the U.S. patent office would consider your beloved 4-FA to also have neurotoxic properties (it is 'obvious' to an expert in the field), and would be considered non-patentable.
Given that the ONLY difference between 4-FA and 4-CA (para-chloroamphetamine) is the type of halogen atom, it is highly likely that 4-FA retains some of the neurotoxic properties of 4-CA. The nature and scope of the neurotoxicity is up for debate, but the risk is certainly there. And in my opinion the risk is very high. The physical properties of the halogens are just TOO similar (electronegativity, radius, orbital configuration, etc).
In the same way that anyone who has taken 2C-B will say it is VERY SIMILAR to 2C-I (2c-B / 2c-I causes the same body feelings, the same psychedelic effects, etc and the only difference is ONE HALOGEN ATOM and they only really differ in the biological half-life), anyone taking 4-FA is running the risk of the same neurotoxicity present in 4-CA (difference also = ONE HALOGEN ATOM).
Let's take a look at the properties of the HALOGEN SUBSTITUENTS ... they are VERY SIMILAR. If you are taking 4-FA, you might as well be taking para-chloroamphetamine (4-CA).
Electronegativity of fluorine and chlorine are VERY SIMILAR.
Fluorine and Chlorine have the SAME VALENCE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION (as they are in the same column in the periodic table.)
Fluorine and Chlorine have VERY SIMILAR ATOMIC RADII
(look at F- at 136 and Cl- at 181).
Look at the above properties. 4-FA and 4-CA (para-chloroamphetamine) are so closely related that they might as well be the same chemical. This is like the difference between the OTC antihistamine Chlorpheniramine vs the OTC antihistimine Brompheniramine. They only differ in biological half-life.
There is a small chance (less than 10%) that 4-FA is safe. But the weight of the evidence points to erring on the side of caution -- we need to assume that halogenated amphetamines are neurotoxic (90% probability) -- and that they are much more neurotoxic than regular amphetamines. The evidence is overwhelming.
Given that 4-FA is ALMOST IDENTICAL to the highly neurotoxic 4-CA (para-chloroamphetamine), differing by ONLY ONE ATOM,
Do you really want to take that risk with your brain?
To users of 4-FA who are concerned:
Okay, so you just read my post, and you believe me. You know that you have taken a risk with your brain, and you want to stop. You don't know how much damage is done (if at all), but you want to get a handle on things and minimize the risk.
What do you do to heal, and to minimize the risk of damage?
1) Stop taking halogenated amphetamines immediately. Do not take them again. You may choose to take regular amphetamines, but halogenated ones are just too risky.
2) Start taking a good multivitamin. Not that Centrum crap. Take a good food-based multivitamin at least 1x / 2x a day from Whole Foods or other organic food store.
3) Eat good diet full of fresh raw foods with fruits and vegetables.
4) Consume melatonin 3-6mg at bedtime each night. This is a powerful mitochondrial antioxidant and promotes brain cell survival during ischemia and other conditions.
5) Consume Acetyl-L-Carnitine at a dose of 2-3gday along side a good source of Omega3 fatty acids. The Acetyl-l-carnitine is a cofactor in the transport of Omega3s and also promotes brain tissue survival as well as regeneration. Consume at least 2-6g Omega3s per day alongside the ALCAR (a mitochondrial cofactor).
Good luck everyone. Please stop taking this 4-FA crap unless you really know what you are doing and have read all the Pubmed literature and made a decision for yourself. Otherwise you are literally playing Russian Roulette with your brain tissue.
- Code: Selecteer alles
Bron : drugsforum.com
wat denken jullie?
Ik zat zelf ook te twijfelen aan gewone 'propaganda' maar toen ik verder las zag ik toch wel degelijke overeenkomsten tussen 4-CA en 4-FA die sterk werden onderbouwd maar , het is alleen een theorie..
-EDIT : Dit is een hele interessante discussie op df.com maar hoe verder ik ga lezen hoe meer 'counter' argumenten ik zie met wetenschappelijke feiten. Maar ik zal zeggen lees het verder want de eerste post maakte mij erg nieuwschierig!