The World Federation of Biological Psychiatry recommends pregabalin as one of several first line agents for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, but recommends other agents such as SSRIs as first line treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. It appears to have anxiolytic effects similar to benzodiazepines with less risk of dependence.
Therapeutic effects of pregabalin appear after 1 week of use and is similar in effectiveness to lorazepam, alprazolam, and venlafaxine, but pregabalin has demonstrated superiority by producing more consistent therapeutic effects for psychic and somatic anxiety symptoms. Long-term trials have shown continued effectiveness without the development of tolerance, and, in addition, unlike benzodiazepines, it has a beneficial effect on sleep and sleep architecture, characterized by the enhancement of slow-wave sleep. and produces less severe cognitive and psychomotor impairment; it also has a low potential for abuse and dependence and may be preferred over the benzodiazepines for these reasons.
Following abrupt or rapid discontinuation of pregabalin, some people reported symptoms suggestive of physical dependence. The FDA determined that the substance dependence profile of pregabalin, as measured by a patient physical withdrawal checklist, was quantitatively less than benzodiazepines.
Einstein schreef:Qua werkingsmechanisme is het niet echt vergelijkbaar met benzo's, het heeft biochemisch gezien een nogal gek effect (iets met calciumkanalen). Qua mentale effecten zit het volgens mij ergens tussen GHB en benzo's in, maar ik heb er geen ervaring mee.
The ability of calcium channel blockers to displace the binding of benzodiazepine ligands was investigated in rat heart, kidney, and brain. The dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers nifedipine and nitrendipine displaced the binding of the non-neuronal-site ligand [3H]Ro5-4864, but not that of the neuronal-site ligands [3H]flurazepam or [3H]clonazepam. The inhibition was competitive, with Ki values in the micromolar range. Other calcium channel blockers--i.e., verapamil and diltiazem--were inactive at both sites. Thus, non-neuronal benzodiazepines bind to a class of sites that also binds dihydropyridines. This implies a role for benzodiazepines in the mediation of calcium-dependent phenomena.
Some glial cells function primarily as the physical support for neurons. Others regulate the internal environment of the brain, especially the fluid surrounding neurons and their synapses, and nutrify neurons. During early embryogenesis glial cells direct the migration of neurons and produce molecules that modify the growth of axons and dendrites. Recent research indicates that glial cells of the hippocampus and cerebellum participate in synaptic transmission, regulate the clearance of neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft, and release gliotransmitters such as ATP, which modulate synaptic function.
Glial cells are known to be capable of mitosis. By contrast, scientific understanding of whether neurons are permanently post-mitotic, or capable of mitosis, is still developing. In the past, glia had been considered[by whom?] to lack certain features of neurons. For example, glial cells were not believed to have chemical synapses or to release transmitters. They were considered to be the passive bystanders of neural transmission. However, recent studies have shown this to be untrue.
For example, astrocytes are crucial in clearance of neurotransmitters from within the synaptic cleft, which provides distinction between arrival of action potentials and prevents toxic build-up of certain neurotransmitters such as glutamate (excitotoxicity). It is also thought that glia play a role in many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, at least in vitro, astrocytes can release gliotransmitter glutamate in response to certain stimulation. Another unique type of glial cell, the oligodendrocyte precursor cells or OPCs, have very well-defined and functional synapses from at least two major groups of neurons. The only notable differences between neurons and glial cells are neurons' possession of axons and dendrites, and capacity to generate action potentials.
Glia ought not to be regarded as "glue" in the nervous system as the name implies; rather, they are more of a partner to neurons. They are also crucial in the development of the nervous system and in processes such as synaptic plasticity and synaptogenesis. Glia have a role in the regulation of repair of neurons after injury. In the central nervous system (CNS), glia suppress repair. Glial cells known as astrocytes enlarge and proliferate to form a scar and produce inhibitory molecules that inhibit regrowth of a damaged or severed axon. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), glial cells known as Schwann cells promote repair.
Astrocytes signal each other using calcium. The gap junctions (also known as electrical synapses) between astrocytes allow the messenger molecule IP3 to diffuse from one astrocyte to another. IP3 activates calcium channels on cellular organelles, releasing calcium into the cytoplasm. This calcium may stimulate the production of more IP3. The net effect is a calcium wave that propagates from cell to cell. Extracellular release of ATP, and consequent activation of purinergic receptors on other astrocytes, may also mediate calcium waves in some cases.
In general, there are two types of astrocytes, protoplasmic and fibrous, similar in function but distinct in morphology and distribution. Protoplasmic astrocytes have short, thick, highly branched processes and are typically found in gray matter. Fibrous astrocytes have long, thin, less branched processes and are more commonly found in white matter.
It has recently been shown that astrocyte activity is linked to blood flow in the brain, and that this is what is actually being measured in fMRI. They also have been involved in neuronal circuits playing an inhibitory role after sensing changes in extracellular calcium.
Research since the mid-1990s has shown that astrocytes propagate intercellular Ca2+ waves over long distances in response to stimulation, and, similar to neurons, release transmitters (called gliotransmitters) in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Data suggest that astrocytes also signal to neurons through Ca2+-dependent release of glutamate. Such discoveries have made astrocytes an important area of research within the field of neuroscience.
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system. At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles. Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the presynaptic cell. Glutamate acts on ionotropic and metabotropic (G-protein coupled) receptors. In the opposing postsynaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor or the AMPA receptor, bind glutamate and are activated. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, glutamate is involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory in the brain. The form of plasticity known as long-term potentiation takes place at glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus, neocortex, and other parts of the brain. Glutamate works not only as a point-to-point transmitter, but also through spill-over synaptic crosstalk between synapses in which summation of glutamate released from a neighboring synapse creates extrasynaptic signaling/volume transmission. In addition, glutamate plays important roles in the regulation of growth cones and synaptogenesis during brain development as originally described by Mark Mattson.
Jb_ schreef:Ik vond lyrica (4×150mg) niet echt een duidelijk effect geven. Had het echter wel voor ghb ontwenning icm baclofen dus mss dat een persoon zonder tolerantie er heftiger op reageert. Je kunt er wel heerlijk op slapen. Waar krijg je het voor als ik vragen mag?
Sommige gebruikers krijgen last van heftige ontwenning van dit middel dus pas er mee op!
Exceptional schreef:Met Alprazolam of Oxazepam ben ik nog nooit op de leuning van een stoel wakker geworden.
Frog schreef:Predatorprotomotherucking t rex
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